Abstract: This paper analyses the current situation of the European Union in relation with Brexit and other disintegrating processes that are taking place in the context of globalization. The first momentum for these processes, prior to Brexit, comes from the European integration model itself that places national interests at the forefront of European politics, generating the transformation of the internal political conflict into a national conflict (of each of the Member States) against Europe and hindering the building of a European identity. This integration model has favoured the democratic involution generated by the financial crisis, from outside politics, and the democratic involution successively incubated inside politics, by manipulating public opinion through social networks and applications developed by big technological companies, as evidenced in the Brexit referendum and in the last presidential elections in the United States or Brazil. In order to face this double democratic involution, it is necessary to rethink the rules and establish mechanisms that make viable the recovery of the functions that constitutionalism has played in the modern world, in an unfavourable historical context such as the current one, in which the identification between constitution and state have been overcome and global challenges must be faced through strong supranational structures, such as a fully democratic European Union.
Sommario: 1. Introduzione. – 2. Gli effetti disgregativi del modello europeo di integrazione. – 3. La globalizzazione come spinta iniziale dell’integrazione ed il suo potenziale disgregativo nel XXI secolo. – 4. Le politiche europee di fronte alla crisi economica. – 5. La Brexit. Processi referendari e democrazia pluralista. – 6. Il contributo delle compagnie tecnologiche alla instabilità globale. – 7. Conclusioni.